The Great Wall of China is the longest man-made architecture in the World. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Unesco recognized it as a World Heritage Site in 1987.
The Great Wall – World Cultural Heritage in China
The Great Wall is the longest wall of China, the famous wall of China built by earth and stone from the 5th century BC. The first wall was built in order to protect the Chinese against attacks by Xiongnu and Mongols, Turkic and other nomadic tribes from Mongolian lands. Some sections of the wall were built in the 5th century, but the most famous of these were the walls built-in 220 BC to 200 BC under Qin Shi Huang, the first emperor of China. However, the Great Wall was built mainly under the Ming Dynasty. The old wall is only left a few relics.
According to a preliminary study published in 2009, the length of the Great Wall of China is about 8,850 km. According to the new data, the Great Wall is 21,196 km long. The average height of the wall is 7m, the top of the wall is 5-6m wide. The Great Wall began at Shan Hai Quan on the Bohai Sea stretching to Lop Nur in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in Xinjiang.
The process of building the Great Wall
The Great Wall of China was built through many Chinese historical dynasties. But overall, it is divided into five main stages:
The first wall was built under the rule of Qin Shi Huang, the first emperor of the Qin Dynasty with a short lifespan. This wall was not built by the efforts of a group, but rather by the involvement of some walls in areas built-in the War States. At that time the walls were joined by earth and stone. This wall is in the north and is a distance from the current wall. Currently, only one segment of this wall still exists. To connect the walls together, estimated to have 300 thousand soldiers and countless sinners, guilty officers, writers do not obey orders… They had to work hard in the mountain forest. These people had to work hard in the harsh conditions of cold winter, hot summer as burning. There are many assumptions that up to a million workers died when they completed the first part of The Great Wall
The next wall was built under the Han Dynasty, Sui Dynasty with the same design as the Qin Dynasty. It was built of earth and stone. Guard towers are also built, separated by several miles. The walls built during this time were severely damaged by the time and erosion wind and rain.
The Great Wall of China today was built under the Ming Dynasty, beginning around 1368 and ending in 1640
The wall of this citadel has 25,000 watchtowers. Just like the first idea when building the wall of the Qin Dynasty, the citadel was built with the purpose of protecting the people from Mongol invaders, foreigners… The Great Wall under The Ming Dynasty was calculated starting from Son Hai Quan to Vinh Boi Hai and ended in Gansu Province next to the Gobi Desert. The Great Wall stretches across nine provinces and 100 districts, over 500 km long.
The Great Wall is severely degraded
Today, many of the ramparts of this famous wall have been damaged. Only some wall sections are repaired. The walls are part of the development of tourism, but most of them are deserted. Even many of the walls were destroyed by local residents to get stone for the house. In addition, the spread of the Gobi Desert also caused the foothills to sink. Scientists say that only about 20% of the walls are in good condition.